In an inter-partes review proceeding (IPR), a challenger can rely only on patents and printed publications to challenge the validity of a patent claim. In contrast, in a post grant review (PGR) proceeding, a challenger can rely on any ground related to patentability, including prior sale, to challenge a patent claim.  In particular, 35 U.S.C. §102(a)(1) bars a person from receiving a patent on an invention that was “in public use, on sale, or otherwise available to the public before the effective filing date of the claimed invention.”
Continue Reading Supreme Court Holds That AIA On-Sale Bar Applied to Secret Sales

A number of significant changes occurred in 2018 at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). To begin with, in February 2018, a new USPTO Director took office.  Director Andrew Iancu, a former patent litigator with law firm experience, appears to have brought a different perspective than that of his corporate predecessors – Michel Lee (Google) and David Kappos (IBM) – to the job at the helm of the USPTO.  In his Senate confirmation hearings, Iancu made it clear that he felt that better balance was needed in the administrative review of issued patents by the USPTO under the America Invents Act (AIA).   He pledged to assess “improvements in the AIA trial standards and processes.”  Iancu identified “institution decisions, claim construction, the amendment process, and the conduct of hearings” as areas that warranted study.  In fact, Director Iancu did a lot more than study these aspects of practice before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) in 2018.
Continue Reading Year in Review: Changes in PTAB Practice in 2018

In an inter partes review (IPR) proceeding, a patent owner may file one motion to amend the patent in one or more of the following ways: (a) cancel any challenged patent claim, or (b) for each challenged claim, propose a reasonable number of substitute claims.  35 U.S.C. §316(d).  1290.  With regard to substitute claims, the

An en banc panel of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) in the case of Aqua Products, Inc. v. Matal recently held that in an inter-partes (IPR) proceeding, the burden of persuasion rests with the challenger to persuade the PATB that substitute claims proposed by a patent owner in a motion to

On October 4, 2017, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, sitting en banc, overruled an earlier panel decision and found that the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) had been impermissibly placing the burden of proving the patentability of amended claims on the Patent Owner, rather than the Petitioner.   See, Aqua Products

Newly appointed USPTO Director Michelle Lee has responded to public criticism of the post-grant patent review mechanisms provided by the America Invents Act (AIA) by announcing in her blog last week that the government will implement several rule changes. The new rules, which will be implemented in three stages, have not yet been finalized but Director Lee strongly hinted these changes should benefit Patent Owners.

One of the rule changes apparently will make it easier for patent owners to amend their claims that are challenged by petitioners in inter partes review (IPR), covered business method (CBM) review and post grant review (PGR) proceedings.

According to the Director Lee, a first round of “quick fixes” will be released in the spring, followed by a second round of more substantial changes that will be published in the Federal Register for public comment in the summer. A third round of changes will follow involving revisions to the PTAB Trial Practice Guide, which governs the conduct of IPR, CBM and PGR proceedings.
Continue Reading USPTO Responds To Criticism By Promising PTAB Rule Changes That Should Benefit Patent Owners

Two of the earliest challenges to patents under the new post grant proceedings established by the America Invents Act (AIA) are now on appeal to the Court of the Appeals for the Federal Circuit and both appeals are taking direct aim at the US Patent and Trademark Office’s decision to adopt a controversial standard for claim construction – the so-called “Broadest Reasonable Interpretation” standard – to govern all of the new AIA proceedings.

Versata v. SAP concerns the very first “covered business method” (CBM) review proceeding (CBM2012-00001) conducted by the USPTO and is on appeal by the Patent Owner, Versata, of the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) decision to invalidate certain challenged claims. Cuozzo v. Garmin concerns the first inter partes review (IPR) proceeding and likewise is on appeal from a PTAB decision finding Couzzo’s claims invalid.

Both appellants are challenging the USPTO’s claim construction standard as impermissible substantive rule-making by the agency and arguing that the standard instead should be the same as that applied to issued patents by the federal courts – the so-called Phillips rule that requires judges and juries to give the elements of a claim their “ordinary and customary meaning.” (See, Phillip v AWH Corp., 415 F.3d 1303 (Fed. Cir. 2005))
Continue Reading Does the Broadest Reasonable Interpretation Standard Make Sense?

After nearly a dozen false starts, it appears that the first genuine “Post Grant Review” (PGR) petition may have been filed with the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) under the America Invents Act (AIA).

Petition PRG2014-00008 was filed on August 5, 2014 by LaRose Industries, Inc. and Toys “R” Us – Delaware, Inc., challenging U.S. Patent 8,684,420 owned by Choon’s Design Inc. (Apparently, several earlier PGR petitions had been filed in error and have not been made public; hence the assignment of number 00008 to this petition.)

The patent at-issue was based on a series of continuing applications, some of which predated the changeover in U.S. patent laws that provides for Post Grant Review. Under the AIA, Post Grant Review is available to challenge a newly-issued patent – so long as its effective filing date is on or after March 16, 2013. The Petitioners will need to show that Choon was not entitled to any priority date earlier than its actual filing.
Continue Reading First Post Grant Review Petition Filed

In an Inter Partes review (IPR) proceeding before the PTAB, a patent owner is not automatically afforded the right to amend the challenged claims. Rather, the patent owner has a burden of establishing that it is entitled to amend one or more of the challenged claims. 37 C.F.R. §42.20(c). To this end, the patent owner must first confer with the Board regarding a proposed motion to amend. After the patent owner receives the Board’s approval, it must file a motion to amend contemporaneous with or prior to the patent owner’s response. 37 C.F.R. §42.121(a)(1). The proposed amendments must be in response to a ground of unpatentability involved in the trial, and may not enlarge the scope of the original challenged claims. §37 C.F.R. 42.121(a)(2)(ii) and 35 U.S.C. §316(d).

In addition, the Board has held that the patent owner bears the burden of proof to demonstrate the patentability of the proposed claims, not only with respect to the prior art references on which the trial was instituted, but also over the prior art in general. Idle Free Sys., Inc. v. Bergstrom, Inc. (IPR2012-00027). The PTAB has explained that the requirement to distinguish the proposed claims over prior art in general does not mean that the patent owner is “assumed to be aware of every item of prior art presumed to be known to a hypothetical person of ordinary skill in the art.” Id. Rather, the patent owner should discuss, and present evidence (if appropriate), regarding the level of ordinary skill the art and what was known in the relevant timeframe about the features being relied on to demonstrate patentability of the proposed claims.

The requirement to show the patentability of the proposed amended claims over prior art in general has been an important factor in the Board’s repeated denial of motions to amend. In fact, the Board had not granted any motion to amend until last month when the Board granted the patent owner’s motion to amend with respect to certain challenged claims in International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. v. The United States of America (IPR2013-00124).


Continue Reading PTAB Grants a Patent Owner’s Request to Amend

As we had reported earlier, a patent owner has a heavy burden in amending claims in an inter partes review (IPR) proceeding.  The recent case of Nichia Corp. v. Emcore Corp. (IPR2012-00005) provides an example of obstacles that a patent owner may face when attempting to amend the challenged claims.  In this case, the patent owner (Emcore) filed a motion with the PTAB to request leave to cancel certain challenged claims and replace them with new claims.  The PTAB denied Emcore’s motion to amend.
Continue Reading The PTAB’s Denial of Patent Owner’s Motion to Amend Underscores the Obstacles that Patent Owners Face In Amending Challenged Claims